Liberty Review América Latina

La Antigua Constitución luego de las Independencias, 1808-1852

JOSÉ CARLOS CHIARAMONTE
DESARROLLO ECONÓMICO 50.199 (2010): 331-361

En el mundo español e hispanoamericano la expresión “nuestra antigua constitución” fue el equivalente más utilizado, desde la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, de lo que en tierras británicas se mencionaba como ancient constitution o funda- mental law. En el escenario político abierto por las independencias, frecuentemente considerado como el reino de la anarquía, carente de reglas políticas ordenadoras de la sociedad, las entidades soberanas emergentes poseyeron en realidad normas constitucionales que, entre otras cosas, justificaban sus diversas posturas ante los proyectos de un posible Estado nacional. La naturaleza de dichas normas no era la misma en todos los casos, pues junto a innovaciones tendientes a implantar regímenes representativos subsistían normas acordes con la “antigua constitución”, como las Ordenanzas de In-tendentes o las Leyes de Indias. En la segunda parte, este artículo examina la validez de ese enfoque en el caso del Río de la Plata, donde junto al fracaso de los nuevos proyectos constitucionales, la realidad mostró la persistencia de la antigua constitución con modificaciones de diversa magnitud y la implementación de otras nuevas, pero acordes con ella. Tal el caso de las “facultades extraordinarias”, la antigua institución legal de la dictadura. Asimismo, el artículo efectúa una revisión de la invalidez del concepto de caudillismo y expone la vigencia de un conjunto de doctrinas enraizadas en el derecho natural y de gentes, frecuentemente descuidadas en la historiografía latinoamericanista por la obsesión por la irrupción de la “modernidad”.

 


								

Filed under: Historia

América Latina Archive

Recent Posts: Liberty Review

Reassessing the productivity gains from trade liberalization

JAEBIN AHN, ERA DABLA-NORRIS, ROMAIN DUVAL, BINGJIE HU, LAMIN NJIE REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS Abstract: This paper reassesses the impact of trade liberalization on productivity. We build a new, unique database of effective tariff rates at the country‐industry level for a broad range of countries over the past two decades. We then explore both the direct […]

Government extraction and firm size: Local officials’ responses to fiscal distress in China

YU LIU JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE ECONOMICS Abstract: This paper studies how government extraction behaviors respond to local fiscal distress in China. We exploit the 2002 Chinese Income Tax Reform which exogenously cut local government revenues from income taxes roughly by half. We find that, when facing fiscal distress, local officials resort to informal taxes, such as […]

Plato’s Concept of Liberty in the Laws

YOUNG, C. HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT Abstract: In this article, I argue that Isaiah Berlin’s distinction between positive and negative concepts of liberty is useful for articulating nuanced aspects of Platonic liberty, but that this terminology has led readers to fail to grasp the full dimensions of Plato’s conception of liberty and the essential virtue that […]

Hands, Not Lands: John Locke, Immigration and the ‘Great Art of Government’

SMITH, B. HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT Abstract: This paper looks at the transmigration of peoples in Locke’s thought, particularly the migration of foreigners into England. I pay close attention to the ‘great art of government’ passage in the Second Treatise which shows that rather than exhibiting a hard right to exclude aliens, rulers are obligated to […]

A Schumpeterian Model of Top Income Inequality

CHARLES I. JONES, JIHEE KIM JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY Abstract: Top income inequality rose sharply in the United States over the last 40 years but increased only slightly in France and Japan. Why? We explore a model in which heterogeneous entrepreneurs, broadly interpreted, exert effort to generate exponential growth in their incomes, which tends to raise […]

Gordon Tullock’s Legacy

PETER BOETTKE AND ROSOLINO CANDELA, RICHARD WAGNER, WILLIAM SHUGHART, AND RANDALL HOLCOMBE THE INDEPENDENT REVIEW 23.2 Abstract: Trained as a lawyer and practiced in the arts of war and diplomacy, Gordon Tullock opened economists’ eyes to new ways of viewing constitutional construction, the challenges of bureaucracy, the nature of government regulations, the problem of rent […]

The Hayek-Friedman hypothesis on the press: is there an association between economic freedom and press freedom?

CHRISTIAN BJØRNSKOV JOURNAL OF INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS Abstract: The Hayek–Friedman hypothesis states that economic freedom is causally associated with stable democracy. I test a particular element of the hypothesis focusing on press freedom, which is arguably a necessary component of any democratic polity. Combining the Freedom House index of press freedom and the Heritage Foundation Index of […]

The Birth of Pork: Local Appropriations in America’s First Century

SANFORD C. GORDON and HANNAH K. SIMPSON AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 112, Issue 3 Abstract: After describing a newly assembled dataset consisting of almost 9,000 local appropriations made by the U.S. Congress between 1789 and 1882, we test competing accounts of the politics surrounding them before offering a more nuanced, historically contingent view of the […]

About Liberty Review

Liberty Review summaries are selected by Liberty Fund Fellows on the basis both of their own research interests and of their relevance for Liberty Fund's mission: to contribute to the preservation and development of individual liberty through research and educational activities.

Print Issues

Liberty Matters

Our Books

Liberty Fund, Inc.

Liberty Fund, Inc. is a private, educational foundation established to encourage the study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals. The Foundation develops, supervises, and finances its own educational activities.