Liberty Review América Latina

La Democracia en América Latina: la Alternativa entre Populismo y Democracia Deliberativa

OSVALDO GUARIGLIA
ISEGORÍA 44 (2011): 57-72

En Política VI 2, 1317b 1-17, Aristóteles define así la democracia: «el rasgo esencial de la democracia es el vivir como se quiere sin ninguna interferencia y de aquí vino el de no ser gobernado, si es posible por nadie, y si no, por turnos. Esta característica contribuye a un sistema general de la libertad fundada en la igualdad». Este modelo normativo dio lugar, históricamente, a dos posibles regímenes políticos, la democracia popular o extrema, basada en la participación directa de todos los ciudadanos, como en Atenas, y una «constitución mixta» que tenía rasgos tanto democráticos como oligárquicos, llamada república en la tradición romana desde Cicerón. Guariglia sostiene que la democracia moderna es la heredera de ambos regímenes, moderada por la nueva concepción de los derechos individuales que son propios del pensamiento moderno desde Hugo Grotius hasta la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos. La constitución representativa fue, así, la solución moderna al conflicto entre gobierno de la mayoría y gobierno de las leyes. Guariglia argumenta que desde su Independencia en el siglo XIX, las democracias de América Latina sufren por la tensión no resuelta entre populismo y constitución liberal democrática. El neo-populismo que surgió en los últimos años del siglo XX se presentó como un desafío y una respuesta a las promesas incumplidas de la democracia. Contra los defensores del populismo autoritario, como por ejemplo Ch. Mouffe y E. Laclau, Guariglia sostiene que la democracia deliberativa es una respuesta superior a esas promesas.

 

Filed under: Filosofía

The Argentine Economy after Two Centuries

RAIMUNDO SOTO, FELIPE ZURITA
LATIN AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS 48.2 (2011): 113-132

The authors of this article document the behavior of income per capita in Argentina subsequent to independence and the civil wars of the mid-19th century. They first decompose the data to isolate low frequency behavior and show that, with significant departures over some periods of time, income per capita grew, on average, at 1.2% per year. The decomposition shows that the largest departure from this behavior is the period from 1974 to 2010, when there was a large and sustained deviation from the trend, with two subperiodsof rapid convergence. Using a simple version of Solow’s growth model as a conceptual framework, they focus their analysis on that particular period. They calibrate and simulate the model from 1950 onwards and use its predictions to provide a quantitative measure of the extremely poor performance of the Argentine economy since 1974. They also use a simple model of the government budget constraint to account for the macroeconomic history of Argentina during that same period. They argue that the systematic mismanagement of government budgets is the principal reason for Argentina’s long departure from the trend. The two subperiods of rapid convergence coincide with the two subperiods of macro fiscal discipline.

 


								

Filed under: Economía, Historia

Montesquieu: Teoría de la Distribución Social del Poder

CLAUDIA FUENTES
REVISTA DE CIENCIA POLÍTICA 31.1 (2011): 47-61

Este artículo propone reconsiderar la función del principio de distribución social dentro de la teoría general de la separación de poderes de Montesquieu. Contra una tradición que parece distinguir entre un principio de distribución válido y autárquico –el jurídico– y otro no válido –el social–, se sostiene: primero, que la función del principio de distribución social puede ser pensada con independencia de su aplicación en el modelo estamental inglés descrito por el autor; segundo, que este principio guarda una relación de codependencia funcional con el principio de distribución jurídica como mecanismo de contención del poder político para la protección de la libertad. Por último, se sostiene que el principio de distribución social remite a la dimensión propiamente política del modelo propuesta por Montesquieu.

 


								

Filed under: Ciencia Política

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