Liberty Review América Latina

La Democracia en América Latina: la Alternativa entre Populismo y Democracia Deliberativa

OSVALDO GUARIGLIA
ISEGORÍA 44 (2011): 57-72

En Política VI 2, 1317b 1-17, Aristóteles define así la democracia: «el rasgo esencial de la democracia es el vivir como se quiere sin ninguna interferencia y de aquí vino el de no ser gobernado, si es posible por nadie, y si no, por turnos. Esta característica contribuye a un sistema general de la libertad fundada en la igualdad». Este modelo normativo dio lugar, históricamente, a dos posibles regímenes políticos, la democracia popular o extrema, basada en la participación directa de todos los ciudadanos, como en Atenas, y una «constitución mixta» que tenía rasgos tanto democráticos como oligárquicos, llamada república en la tradición romana desde Cicerón. Guariglia sostiene que la democracia moderna es la heredera de ambos regímenes, moderada por la nueva concepción de los derechos individuales que son propios del pensamiento moderno desde Hugo Grotius hasta la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos. La constitución representativa fue, así, la solución moderna al conflicto entre gobierno de la mayoría y gobierno de las leyes. Guariglia argumenta que desde su Independencia en el siglo XIX, las democracias de América Latina sufren por la tensión no resuelta entre populismo y constitución liberal democrática. El neo-populismo que surgió en los últimos años del siglo XX se presentó como un desafío y una respuesta a las promesas incumplidas de la democracia. Contra los defensores del populismo autoritario, como por ejemplo Ch. Mouffe y E. Laclau, Guariglia sostiene que la democracia deliberativa es una respuesta superior a esas promesas.

 

Filed under: Filosofía

The Argentine Economy after Two Centuries

RAIMUNDO SOTO, FELIPE ZURITA
LATIN AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS 48.2 (2011): 113-132

The authors of this article document the behavior of income per capita in Argentina subsequent to independence and the civil wars of the mid-19th century. They first decompose the data to isolate low frequency behavior and show that, with significant departures over some periods of time, income per capita grew, on average, at 1.2% per year. The decomposition shows that the largest departure from this behavior is the period from 1974 to 2010, when there was a large and sustained deviation from the trend, with two subperiodsof rapid convergence. Using a simple version of Solow’s growth model as a conceptual framework, they focus their analysis on that particular period. They calibrate and simulate the model from 1950 onwards and use its predictions to provide a quantitative measure of the extremely poor performance of the Argentine economy since 1974. They also use a simple model of the government budget constraint to account for the macroeconomic history of Argentina during that same period. They argue that the systematic mismanagement of government budgets is the principal reason for Argentina’s long departure from the trend. The two subperiods of rapid convergence coincide with the two subperiods of macro fiscal discipline.

 


								

Filed under: Economía, Historia

Montesquieu: Teoría de la Distribución Social del Poder

CLAUDIA FUENTES
REVISTA DE CIENCIA POLÍTICA 31.1 (2011): 47-61

Este artículo propone reconsiderar la función del principio de distribución social dentro de la teoría general de la separación de poderes de Montesquieu. Contra una tradición que parece distinguir entre un principio de distribución válido y autárquico –el jurídico– y otro no válido –el social–, se sostiene: primero, que la función del principio de distribución social puede ser pensada con independencia de su aplicación en el modelo estamental inglés descrito por el autor; segundo, que este principio guarda una relación de codependencia funcional con el principio de distribución jurídica como mecanismo de contención del poder político para la protección de la libertad. Por último, se sostiene que el principio de distribución social remite a la dimensión propiamente política del modelo propuesta por Montesquieu.

 


								

Filed under: Ciencia Política

América Latina Archive

Recent Posts: Liberty Review

‘A Burthen Too Heavy For Humane Sufferance’: Locke on Reputation

STUART-BUTTLE, T. HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT, Volume 38, Number 4 Abstract: Locke emphasized that a concern for reputation powerfully shaped the individual’s conduct. Most scholarship suggests that Locke portrayed this phenomenon in negative terms. This article complicates this picture. A concern for reputation served a constructive role in Locke’s theory of social development, which offered a […]

Marsilius of Padua on Representation

MULIERI, A. HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT, Volume 38, Number 4 Abstract: The concept of representation plays an important role in Marsilius of Padua’s major work, the Defensor Pacis. Yet, with a few notable exceptions,Marsilius’ concept of representation has received relatively little attention among recent scholars. The main purpose of this article is to fill this gap […]

Democracy before, in, and after Schumpeter

PHILIP PETTIT CRITICAL REVIEW Abstract: The classical model of democracy that Schumpeter criticizes is manufactured out of a variety of earlier ideas, not those of any one thinker or even one school of thought. His critique of the central ideals by which he defines the model—those of the common will and the common good—remains persuasive. People’s […]

The Golden Thread of Religious Liberty: Comparing the Thought of John Locke and James Madison

KEVIN VANCE OXFORD JOURNAL OF LAW AND RELIGION, Volume 6, Issue 2 Abstract: The views of the American founders on religious liberty provide fertile ground for a range of different interpretations of the extent of legal protections for religious liberty and how religious liberty is justified. Although John Locke’s arguments for religious liberty were influential on […]

Edmund Burke on the Question of Commercial Intercourse in the Eighteenth Century

GREGORY M. COLLINS THE REVIEW OF POLITICS, Volume 79, Issue 4 Abstract: Scholars have noticed that Edmund Burke’s impassioned economic tract in favor of market liberty, Thoughts and Details on Scarcity, appears to be at odds with his political philosophy and rhetorical temperament of prudence and restraint. This essay challenges this interpretation. I contend that Burke’s emotional […]

How do federal regulations affect consumer prices? An analysis of the regressive effects of regulation

DUSTIN CHAMBERS, COURTNEY A. COLLINS, ALAN KRAUSE PUBLIC CHOICE Abstract: This study is the first to measure the impact of federal regulations on consumer prices. By combining consumer expenditure and pricing data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, industry supply-chain data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, and industry-specific regulation information from the Mercatus Center’s RegData […]

Socialized View of Man vs. Rational Choice Theory: What Does Smith’s Sympathy Have to Say?

ELIAS L. KHALIL JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR & ORGANIZATION Abstract: To explain the anomaly of cooperation in finitely repeated games, some economists advance a socialized view of man as an antidote to rational choice theory. This paper confronts these economists insofar as they trace the socialized view to Smith’s theory of sympathy in The Theory of Moral […]

As an Economy Becomes More Developed, Do People Become Less Altruistic?

PAPAR KANANURAK & AEGGARCHAT SIRISANKANAN THE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Abstract: Inter-household private transfers are one of the main informal insurance mechanisms that prevalently implemented in developing countries. Unfortunately, most of the literatures investigates the private transfer motives at static perspectives. Therefore, this paper took advantage to investigate the private transfers motives in Thailand over the […]

About Liberty Review

Liberty Review summaries are selected by Liberty Fund Fellows on the basis both of their own research interests and of their relevance for Liberty Fund's mission: to contribute to the preservation and development of individual liberty through research and educational activities.

Print Issues

Liberty Matters

Our Books

Liberty Fund, Inc.

Liberty Fund, Inc. is a private, educational foundation established to encourage the study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals. The Foundation develops, supervises, and finances its own educational activities.