Liberty Review América Latina

Mano invisible, cláusulas lockeanas y justicia privada: Emergencia y justificación del Estado en Anarquía, Estado y Utopía

FELIPE SCHWEMBER AUGIER
REVISTA DE CIENCIA POLÍTICA 35.2 (2015): 409-426

Abstract: El presente trabajo analiza el argumento ofrecido por Nozick en favor de la licitud del Estado. Se sostendrá que, bien entendido, este argumento hace frente a dos dificultades diferentes: una descriptiva (el surgimiento inocuo e inintencionado del Estado) y otra de iure (la legitimidad del Estado). La primera es resuelta por Nozick a través de una explicación de mano invisible, la segunda por medio del denominado principio de compensación. Contrariamente a lo que suele creer, se intentará demostrar que el principio de compensación es compatible con la filosofía política de Locke y, por tanto, con el liberalismo de inspiración lockeana.

Filed under: Filosofía

The Roots of Brazil’s Heavy Taxation

GABRIEL ONDETTI
JOURNAL OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 47.4 (2015): 749-779

Abstract: Latin America is widely known as a low-tax region, but Brazil defies that description with a tax burden almost double the regional average. Though longstanding, Brazil’s position atop the tax burden ranking is not a historical constant. As recently as the early 1950s three other countries, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, had similar or even heavier burdens. However, by the early 1980s Brazil had emerged as the most heavily taxed country in Latin America, and subsequent decades reinforced that status. This article seeks to uncover the roots of Brazil’s heavy taxation by examining the process through which it rose to the top of the regional ranking and managed to stay there. It emphasises two variables, the social class bases of public sector growth and the degree of support for democracy among key political actors. Despite changing over time, these variables have consistently interacted in ways that favour rising taxation.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía

Classical Liberalism in Guatemala

ANDRÉS MARROQUÍN AND FRITZ THOMAS
ECON JOURNAL WATCH 12.3 (2015): 460-478

Abstract: We give an account of classical liberalism in Guatemala, its successes, failures, and main figures. Classical liberalism is a young tradition in the country and relatively small. The three most important organizations are Universidad Francisco Marroquín, the Center for Economic and Social Studies (CEES), and the Center for National Economic Research (CIEN). The most important individual for liberalism in Guatemala has been Manuel Ayau, who passed away in 2010.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía, Historia, Sociedad

Venezuela: Without Liberals, There Is No Liberalism

HUGO J. FARIA AND LEONOR FILARDO
ECON JOURNAL WATCH 12.3 (2015): 375-399

Abstract: The Venezuelan economy evolved from a growth miracle (1920–1957) to a growth disaster (1960 to the present). This paper describes the institutional collapse behind this reversal of fortunes. To cast light on Venezuela’s U-turn we provide a brief historical account, and we discuss the role played by educational organizations, the media and culture, and political and entrepreneurial elites in the destruction of liberal institutions. We also describe the most prominent liberal reactions to the pervasive institutional decay endured by the country. Finally, a major lesson emerges from this case study: illiberal mindsets coupled with the absence of leadership bring dire consequences for the people’s standard of living.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía, Historia, Sociedad

The Stock Exchange, the State and Economic Development in Mexico, 1932-1976

JAVIER MORENO-LAZARO
REVISTA DE HISTORIA ECONÓMICA / JOURNAL OF IBERIAN AND LATIN AMERICAN ECONOMIC HISTORY 33.2 (2015): 321-350

Abstract: In this article I examine the history of the Mexican Stock Exchange from the end of the Revolution until 1975, under the hypothesis that it did not carry out its pertinent functions in corporate financing but was rather an economic and political instrument of the government. Due to state intervention and the deficient definition of property rights, its functioning was completely anomalous except during this period. The article represents a first step in the study of the role of the stock exchange in Latin American corporatist economic models.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía

Por Qué es Antidemocrática la Secesión

MIKEL ARTETA
REVISTA DE FILOSOFÍA 40.1 (2015): 157-180

Abstract: Trataré de demostrar que la secesión es intrínsecamente antidemocrática. retomaremos los argumentos secesionistas: de aquellos que parten de una idea (errada) de autogobierno y de quienes lo hacen desde el liberalismo. Luego opondremos objeciones a ambos: defendiendo el valor de la igualdad; desmontando reivindicaciones instrumentales de homogeneidad interna; retomando las objeciones ya clásicas de Buchanan; y, finalmente, recomponiendo, con Habermas y Pogge, un concepto de autogobierno del cual derivaremos que no es legítimo trazar más fronteras y que la democracia demandaría eliminarlas, si fuera posible.

Filed under: Filosofía

América Latina Archive

Recent Posts: Liberty Review

Socialized View of Man vs. Rational Choice Theory: What Does Smith’s Sympathy Have to Say?

ELIAS L. KHALIL JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR & ORGANIZATION Abstract: To explain the anomaly of cooperation in finitely repeated games, some economists advance a socialized view of man as an antidote to rational choice theory. This paper confronts these economists insofar as they trace the socialized view to Smith’s theory of sympathy in The Theory of Moral […]

As an Economy Becomes More Developed, Do People Become Less Altruistic?

PAPAR KANANURAK & AEGGARCHAT SIRISANKANAN THE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Abstract: Inter-household private transfers are one of the main informal insurance mechanisms that prevalently implemented in developing countries. Unfortunately, most of the literatures investigates the private transfer motives at static perspectives. Therefore, this paper took advantage to investigate the private transfers motives in Thailand over the […]

Geography, Transparency, and Institutions

JORAM MAYSHAR, OMER MOAV, and ZVIKA NEEMAN AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 111, Issue 3 Abstract: We propose a theory in which geographic attributes explain cross-regional institutional differences in (1) the scale of the state, (2) the distribution of power within state hierarchy, and (3) property rights to land. In this theory, geography and technology affect […]

The rise and decline of nations: the dynamic properties of institutional reform

RUSSELL S. SOBEL JOURNAL OF INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS, Volume 13, Issue 3 Abstract: While it is now well established in the literature that countries with better policies and institutions, as measured by the Economic Freedom of the World index, have better outcomes in terms of prosperity, growth, and measures of human well-being. However, we know little about the process […]

State Intervention in Wine Markets in the Early 20th Century: Why was it so Different in France and Spain?

JORDI PLANAS REVISITA DE HISTORIA ECONOMICA – JOURNAL OF IBERIAN AND LATIN AMERICAN ECONOMIC HISTORY, Volume 35, Issue 2 Abstract: In the early 20th century, governments not only used trade policy to protect domestic agricultural markets, but they also introduced regulations affecting quality, quantity and prices. In this article I assess the differences in the state […]

Adam Smith’s Theory of Money and Banking

NICHOLAS A. CUROTT JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT, Volume 39, Issue 3 Abstract: This paper addresses a long-running debate in the economics literature—the debate over Adam Smith’s theory of money and banking—and argues that recent reinterpretations of Smith’s monetary theory have erroneously diverted historians of monetary thought from the correct, but briefly articulated, initial […]

Individualistic values, institutional trust, and interventionist attitudes

HANS PITLIK and MARTIN RODE JOURNAL OF INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS, Volume 13, Issue 3 Abstract: A popular explanation for economic development is that ‘individualistic values’ provide a mind-set that is favorable to the creation of growth-promoting institutions. The present paper investigates the relationship between individualistic values and personal attitudes toward government intervention. We consider two key components […]

Economic Development, Mobility, and Political Discontent: An Experimental Test of Tocqueville’s Thesis in Pakistan

ANDREW HEALY, KATRINA KOSEC and CECILIA HYUNJUNG MO AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW, Volume 111, Issue 3 Abstract: We consider the thesis of Alexis de Tocqueville (1856) that economic development and increased mobility may generate political discontent not present in more stagnant economies. For many citizens, as they become aware of the potential for improved living standards, their aspirations may […]

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