Liberty Review América Latina

Mano invisible, cláusulas lockeanas y justicia privada: Emergencia y justificación del Estado en Anarquía, Estado y Utopía

REVISTA DE CIENCIA POLÍTICA 35.2 (2015): 409-426

Abstract: El presente trabajo analiza el argumento ofrecido por Nozick en favor de la licitud del Estado. Se sostendrá que, bien entendido, este argumento hace frente a dos dificultades diferentes: una descriptiva (el surgimiento inocuo e inintencionado del Estado) y otra de iure (la legitimidad del Estado). La primera es resuelta por Nozick a través de una explicación de mano invisible, la segunda por medio del denominado principio de compensación. Contrariamente a lo que suele creer, se intentará demostrar que el principio de compensación es compatible con la filosofía política de Locke y, por tanto, con el liberalismo de inspiración lockeana.

Filed under: Filosofía

The Roots of Brazil’s Heavy Taxation


Abstract: Latin America is widely known as a low-tax region, but Brazil defies that description with a tax burden almost double the regional average. Though longstanding, Brazil’s position atop the tax burden ranking is not a historical constant. As recently as the early 1950s three other countries, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, had similar or even heavier burdens. However, by the early 1980s Brazil had emerged as the most heavily taxed country in Latin America, and subsequent decades reinforced that status. This article seeks to uncover the roots of Brazil’s heavy taxation by examining the process through which it rose to the top of the regional ranking and managed to stay there. It emphasises two variables, the social class bases of public sector growth and the degree of support for democracy among key political actors. Despite changing over time, these variables have consistently interacted in ways that favour rising taxation.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía

Classical Liberalism in Guatemala

ECON JOURNAL WATCH 12.3 (2015): 460-478

Abstract: We give an account of classical liberalism in Guatemala, its successes, failures, and main figures. Classical liberalism is a young tradition in the country and relatively small. The three most important organizations are Universidad Francisco Marroquín, the Center for Economic and Social Studies (CEES), and the Center for National Economic Research (CIEN). The most important individual for liberalism in Guatemala has been Manuel Ayau, who passed away in 2010.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía, Historia, Sociedad

Venezuela: Without Liberals, There Is No Liberalism

ECON JOURNAL WATCH 12.3 (2015): 375-399

Abstract: The Venezuelan economy evolved from a growth miracle (1920–1957) to a growth disaster (1960 to the present). This paper describes the institutional collapse behind this reversal of fortunes. To cast light on Venezuela’s U-turn we provide a brief historical account, and we discuss the role played by educational organizations, the media and culture, and political and entrepreneurial elites in the destruction of liberal institutions. We also describe the most prominent liberal reactions to the pervasive institutional decay endured by the country. Finally, a major lesson emerges from this case study: illiberal mindsets coupled with the absence of leadership bring dire consequences for the people’s standard of living.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía, Historia, Sociedad

The Stock Exchange, the State and Economic Development in Mexico, 1932-1976


Abstract: In this article I examine the history of the Mexican Stock Exchange from the end of the Revolution until 1975, under the hypothesis that it did not carry out its pertinent functions in corporate financing but was rather an economic and political instrument of the government. Due to state intervention and the deficient definition of property rights, its functioning was completely anomalous except during this period. The article represents a first step in the study of the role of the stock exchange in Latin American corporatist economic models.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía

Por Qué es Antidemocrática la Secesión

REVISTA DE FILOSOFÍA 40.1 (2015): 157-180

Abstract: Trataré de demostrar que la secesión es intrínsecamente antidemocrática. retomaremos los argumentos secesionistas: de aquellos que parten de una idea (errada) de autogobierno y de quienes lo hacen desde el liberalismo. Luego opondremos objeciones a ambos: defendiendo el valor de la igualdad; desmontando reivindicaciones instrumentales de homogeneidad interna; retomando las objeciones ya clásicas de Buchanan; y, finalmente, recomponiendo, con Habermas y Pogge, un concepto de autogobierno del cual derivaremos que no es legítimo trazar más fronteras y que la democracia demandaría eliminarlas, si fuera posible.

Filed under: Filosofía

América Latina Archive

Recent Posts: Liberty Review

Misjudging the character of the welfare state: Hayek, generality, and the knowledge problem

CHRISTOPHER S. MARTIN & NIKOLAI G. WENZEL THE REVIEW OF AUSTRIAN ECONOMICS Abstract: What are the limits of collective action? As James Buchanan famously worried, is it possible to empower the productive state without lapsing into the predatory state? This paper uses insights from F.A. Hayek to address problems of public goods and the role of […]

Bowling for Fascism: Social Capital and the Rise of the Nazi Party

SHANKER SATYANATH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY Abstract: Using newly collected data on association density in 229 towns and cities in interwar Germany, we show that denser social networks were associated with faster entry into the Nazi Party. The effect is large: one standard deviation higher association density is associated with at least 15 percent faster Nazi […]

A Previously Unpublished Correspondence between Adam Smith and Joseph Nicolas de Windischgratz

MENUDO, J.M., RIEUCAU, N. HISTORY OF POLITICAL ECONOMY Abstract: This article transcripts and comments on two letters by Adam Smith, and two letters by his correspondent Joseph Nicolas de Windischgrätz. These letters belong to a rather rich and lengthy exchange—which would end at the beginning of 1788—composed of at least sixteen pieces. As with the rest […]

Nationhood and Constitutionalism in the Ditch Republic: An Examination of Grotius’ Antiquity of the Batavian Republic

ALEXANDER-DAVEY, E. HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT, Volume 38, Number 1 Abstract: The emphasis in contemporary democratic theory and in the history of political thought on the ‘natural rights’ theory of popular sovereignty of Locke, precursors of which are found in the work of Hugo Grotius and others, obscures an important relationship between constitutional self-government and nationalism. […]

Property and the Creation of Value

DAN MOLLER ECONOMICS & PHILOSOPHY, Volume 33, Issue 1 Abstract: Following Locke, philosophical discussion of private property has tended to focus on the acquisition of natural resources as central. In this paper I first pursue the idea that the resource paradigm doesn’t apply to most developed economies, and show how this creates problems for many accounts […]

Does International Commercial Arbitration Promote Foreign Direct Investment?

ANDREW MYBURGH & JORDI PANIAGUA THE JOURNAL OF LAW AND ECONOMICS, Volume 59, Number 3 Abstract: This paper explores the role that international commercial arbitration plays in facilitating foreign direct investment (FDI). International commercial arbitration is a system of private commercial law that enables firms to more effectively enforce contracts by allowing them to avoid inefficiencies […]

1688 and all that: property rights, the Glorious Revolution and the rise of British capitalism

GEOFFREY M. HODGSON JOURNAL OF INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS, Volume 13, Issue 1 Abstract: In a seminal 1989 article, Douglass North and Barry Weingast argued that by making the monarch more answerable to Parliament, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 helped to secure property rights in England and stimulate the rise of capitalism. Similarly, Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, […]

The Economics Impact of Sovereign Defaults in Latin America 1870-2012

TJEERD MENNO BOONMAN REVISTA DE HISTORIA ECONOMICA, Volume 35, Issue 1 Abstract: This article analyzes sovereign debt defaults in four Latin American countries—Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico—for the period 1870-2012. The impact of sovereign defaults on real GDP growth is generally short-lived, while the impact in terms of output losses is deep and lasts long. Defaults […]

About Liberty Review

Liberty Review summaries are selected by Liberty Fund Fellows on the basis both of their own research interests and of their relevance for Liberty Fund's mission: to contribute to the preservation and development of individual liberty through research and educational activities.

Print Issues

Liberty Matters

Our Books

Liberty Fund, Inc.

Liberty Fund, Inc. is a private, educational foundation established to encourage the study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals. The Foundation develops, supervises, and finances its own educational activities.