Liberty Review América Latina

Mano invisible, cláusulas lockeanas y justicia privada: Emergencia y justificación del Estado en Anarquía, Estado y Utopía

REVISTA DE CIENCIA POLÍTICA 35.2 (2015): 409-426

Abstract: El presente trabajo analiza el argumento ofrecido por Nozick en favor de la licitud del Estado. Se sostendrá que, bien entendido, este argumento hace frente a dos dificultades diferentes: una descriptiva (el surgimiento inocuo e inintencionado del Estado) y otra de iure (la legitimidad del Estado). La primera es resuelta por Nozick a través de una explicación de mano invisible, la segunda por medio del denominado principio de compensación. Contrariamente a lo que suele creer, se intentará demostrar que el principio de compensación es compatible con la filosofía política de Locke y, por tanto, con el liberalismo de inspiración lockeana.

Filed under: Filosofía

The Roots of Brazil’s Heavy Taxation


Abstract: Latin America is widely known as a low-tax region, but Brazil defies that description with a tax burden almost double the regional average. Though longstanding, Brazil’s position atop the tax burden ranking is not a historical constant. As recently as the early 1950s three other countries, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, had similar or even heavier burdens. However, by the early 1980s Brazil had emerged as the most heavily taxed country in Latin America, and subsequent decades reinforced that status. This article seeks to uncover the roots of Brazil’s heavy taxation by examining the process through which it rose to the top of the regional ranking and managed to stay there. It emphasises two variables, the social class bases of public sector growth and the degree of support for democracy among key political actors. Despite changing over time, these variables have consistently interacted in ways that favour rising taxation.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía

Classical Liberalism in Guatemala

ECON JOURNAL WATCH 12.3 (2015): 460-478

Abstract: We give an account of classical liberalism in Guatemala, its successes, failures, and main figures. Classical liberalism is a young tradition in the country and relatively small. The three most important organizations are Universidad Francisco Marroquín, the Center for Economic and Social Studies (CEES), and the Center for National Economic Research (CIEN). The most important individual for liberalism in Guatemala has been Manuel Ayau, who passed away in 2010.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía, Historia, Sociedad

Venezuela: Without Liberals, There Is No Liberalism

ECON JOURNAL WATCH 12.3 (2015): 375-399

Abstract: The Venezuelan economy evolved from a growth miracle (1920–1957) to a growth disaster (1960 to the present). This paper describes the institutional collapse behind this reversal of fortunes. To cast light on Venezuela’s U-turn we provide a brief historical account, and we discuss the role played by educational organizations, the media and culture, and political and entrepreneurial elites in the destruction of liberal institutions. We also describe the most prominent liberal reactions to the pervasive institutional decay endured by the country. Finally, a major lesson emerges from this case study: illiberal mindsets coupled with the absence of leadership bring dire consequences for the people’s standard of living.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía, Historia, Sociedad

The Stock Exchange, the State and Economic Development in Mexico, 1932-1976


Abstract: In this article I examine the history of the Mexican Stock Exchange from the end of the Revolution until 1975, under the hypothesis that it did not carry out its pertinent functions in corporate financing but was rather an economic and political instrument of the government. Due to state intervention and the deficient definition of property rights, its functioning was completely anomalous except during this period. The article represents a first step in the study of the role of the stock exchange in Latin American corporatist economic models.

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía

Por Qué es Antidemocrática la Secesión

REVISTA DE FILOSOFÍA 40.1 (2015): 157-180

Abstract: Trataré de demostrar que la secesión es intrínsecamente antidemocrática. retomaremos los argumentos secesionistas: de aquellos que parten de una idea (errada) de autogobierno y de quienes lo hacen desde el liberalismo. Luego opondremos objeciones a ambos: defendiendo el valor de la igualdad; desmontando reivindicaciones instrumentales de homogeneidad interna; retomando las objeciones ya clásicas de Buchanan; y, finalmente, recomponiendo, con Habermas y Pogge, un concepto de autogobierno del cual derivaremos que no es legítimo trazar más fronteras y que la democracia demandaría eliminarlas, si fuera posible.

Filed under: Filosofía

América Latina Archive

Recent Posts: LibertyReview

The Impact of Holy Land Crusades on State Formation: War Mobilization, Trade Integration, and Political Development in Medieval Europe

LISA BLAYDES AND CHRISTOPHER PAIK INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION, VOLUME 70, ISSUE 3 Abstract: Holy Land Crusades were among the most significant forms of military mobilization to occur during the medieval period. Crusader mobilization had important implications for European state formation. We find that areas with large numbers of Holy Land crusaders witnessed increased political stability and […]

Mindful Economics: The Production, Consumption, and Value of Beliefs

ROLAND BÉNABOU AND JEAN TIROLE THE JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVES 30.3 (2016): 141-164 Abstract: In this paper, we provide a perspective into the main ideas and findings emerging from the growing literature on motivated beliefs and reasoning. This perspective emphasizes that beliefs often fulfill important psychological and functional needs of the individual. Economically relevant examples include confidence in […]

Two Concepts of Religious Liberty: The Natural Rights and Moral Autonomy Approaches to the Free Exercise of Religion

VINCENT PHILLIP MUÑOZ AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE REVIEW 110.2 (2016): 369-381 Abstract: Due in part to the influence of Michael McConnell, free exercise exemptionism is generally thought to be compatible with, if not dictated by, the founders’ church-state political philosophy. This article rejects that position, arguing instead that America’s constitutional tradition offers two distinct conceptions of religious liberty: […]

Representation without Taxation, Taxation without Consent: The Legacy of Spanish Colonialism in America

ALEJANDRA IRIGOIN REVISTA DE HISTORIA ECONÓMICA / JOURNAL OF IBERIAN AND LATIN AMERICAN ECONOMIC HISTORY, 34.2 (2016): 369-381 Abstract: The essay examines Spain’s colonial legacy in the long-run development of Spanish America. It surveys the fiscal and constitutional outcomes of independence and assesses the relative burden imposed by colonialism. Constitutional asymmetries between revenue collecting and spending agents […]

Locke On Toleration, (In)Civility and the Quest for Concord

T. M. BEJAN HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT 37.3 (2016): 556-587 Abstract: Lockean toleration has long been criticized as ethically minimal and indifferent to the interactions of private individuals. Yet these criticisms ignore Locke’s lasting preoccupation with intolerance and incivility as obstacles to coexistence. These concerns were instrumental in the development of his understanding of toleration as […]

Doux Commerce, Jew Commerce: Intolerance And Tolerance In Voltaire And Montesquieu

R. GOODMAN HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT 37.3 (2016): 530-555 Abstract: Voltaire and Montesquieu both defended eighteenth-century commerce against its critics–but Voltaire did so as a vehement anti-Semite, while the comparatively tolerant Montesquieu internalized the most prevalent criticisms of commercial society. Voltaire’s strategic anti-Semitism projected the market’s unsavoury qualities onto an already despised minority, creating, in effect, […]

No Progressive Taxation without Discrimination? On the Generality of the Law in the Classical Liberal Tradition

ÅSBJØRN MELKEVIK CONSTITUTIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY (2016). ADVANCED ONLINE PUBLICATION. DOI: 10.1007/s10602-016-9222-x Abstract: Any liberal theory that would take seriously the question of equality before the law is bound to engage with discrimination-related matters, and so long as one is a liberal one should oppose all discrimination coming from the state. This, however, may be a double-edged sword […]

An Experimental Study of Democracy Breakdown, Income and Inequality

DMITRY RYVKIN, ANASTASIA SEMYKINA EXPERIMENTAL ECONOMICS (2016). ADVANCED ONLINE PUBLICATION. DOI: 10.1007/s10683-016-9490-3 Abstract: Many empirical studies investigate the relationships between economic development, inequality, and democracy survival; however, establishing causal links with naturally occurring cross-country data is problematic. We address this question in a laboratory experiment, where in democracy citizens can invest in profitable projects and vote on […]

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