Liberty Review América Latina

Justicia Política y Social como Intercambio

OTFRIED HOFFE
ESTUDIOS PÚBLICOS 124 (2011): 1-22

En este artículo se intenta refundar la justicia política y social a partir de una concepción nueva de justicia, a saber, la justicia entendida como intercambio. Para ello, el autor revisa críticamente las concepciones clásicas más relevantes, como son las de Aristóteles, Hobbes y Kant, así como también la de autores modernos, como Rawls, Hayek y Nozick.

 


								

Filed under: Filosofía

Los Presupuestos Psicológicos en Política

ALEJANDRA SALINAS
ESTUDIOS PÚBLICOS 124 (2011): 83-112

Este trabajo se propone resumir, clasificar y comparar diversas teorías sobre las disposiciones psicológicas de los actores políticos, sus implicancias institucionales y su impacto en las políticas públicas. En el plano cognitivo, se apuntan dos nociones “fundacionales” —ignorancia inducida y elección racional— que parten de premisas opuestas: la primera detecta una incapacidad cognitiva del votante medio en los sistemas representativos, mientras la segunda lo cree racionalmente capaz, pero indiferente a obtener información política. Ambas se preocupan por los efectos políticos negativos derivados de este paisaje cognitivo, al igual que los teóricos de la racionalidad limitada, para quienes los funcionarios o expertos podrían corregir esos efectos. En contraste, los “deliberativos” asumen a priori la capacidad racional de todos los actores para deliberar sobre los asuntos públicos y proponen un modelo normativo basado en esta capacidad. Por otra parte, la fe en la deliberación y en la representación es cuestionada por quienes mantienen el supuesto cognitivo más débil, el de la “ignorancia inevitable”, y lo aplican a votantes, funcionarios y expertos por igual para alertarlos, por ejemplo, respecto de las consecuencias no intencionadas de las acciones humanas. En el plano de los sentimientos, se examinan algunos argumentos presentados para justificar o criticar el rol del Estado en atender aquellas demandas que, según las visiones respectivas, se basan en los sentimientos del miedo, la solidaridad o la compasión, y que buscarían atenuarlos mediante el asistencialismo, tanto en su versión más clásica del sistema de bienestar social como en su más moderna versión populista.

 


								

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía

América Latina Archive

Recent Posts: Liberty Review

Lincoln and the Politics of the “Towering Genius”

STEVEN B. SMITH AMERICAN POLITICAL THOUGHT, Volume 7, Number 3 Abstract: This article examines Lincoln’s “Lyceum Speech” with its concern for the “towering genius” in politics against the backdrop of the recent rise of populism and demagoguery. Lincoln’s concern was with a new kind of problem, namely, the appearance of the romantic hero in politics, a […]

Economic Foundations of the Territorial State System

AVIDIT ACHARYA, ALEXANDER LEE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Abstract: The contemporary world is organized into a system of territorial states in which rulers exercise authority inside clearly defined boundaries and recognize the authority of other rulers outside those boundaries. We develop a model to explain how the major economic and military developments in Europe starting […]

Money as meta-rule: Buchanan’s constitutional economics as a foundation for monetary stability

PETER J. BOETTKE, ALEXANDER W. SALTER, DANIEL J. SMITH PUBLIC CHOICE Abstract: This paper explores James Buchanan’s contributions to monetary economics and argues these contributions form the foundation of a robust monetary economics paradigm. While often not recognized for his contributions to monetary economics, Buchanan’s scholarship offers important insights for current debates, especially the renewed interest […]

Escape from Europe: a calculus of consent model of the origins of liberal institutions in the North American colonies

VLAD TARKO, KYLE O’DONNELL CONSTITUTIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY Abstract: The migration out of Europe and the establishment of North American colonies presents us with a great puzzle: why did the colonists establish democratic forms of governance? Considering that early democratic colonies appeared even before philosophical works such as those of Locke and Montesquieu were written, it is […]

Spinning the industrial revolution

JANE HUMPHRIES, BENJAMIN SCHNEIDER THE ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW Abstract: The prevailing explanation for why the industrial revolution occurred first in Britain during the last quarter of the eighteenth century is Allen’s ‘high wage economy’ view, which claims that the high cost of labour relative to capital and fuel incentivized innovation and the adoption of new techniques. […]

A culture of rent seeking

SEUNG GINNY CHOI, VIRGIL HENRY STORR PUBLIC CHOICE Abstract: Tullock [J Dev Econ 67(2):455–470, 1967] introduced the concept of rent seeking and highlighted the social costs associated with collecting and lobbying for or against tariffs, investing in human and physical capital to facilitate or protect against theft, and expending resources to establish a monopoly. A large portion […]

Two Rights of Free Speech

ANDREI MARMOR RATIO JURIS Abstract: My main argument in this paper is that the right to freedom of expression is not a single right, complex as it may be, but spans two separate rights that I label the right to speak and the right to hear. Roughly, the right to speak stands for the right of […]

Social contracts for real moral agents: a synthesis of public reason and public choice approaches to constitutional design

KEVIN VALLIER CONSTITUTIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY Abstract: Citizens in contemporary democratic societies disagree deeply about the nature of the good life, and they disagree just as profoundly about justice. In building a social contract theory for diverse citizens, then, we cannot rely as heavily on the theory of justice as John Rawls did. I contend that Rawlsian […]

About Liberty Review

Liberty Review summaries are selected by Liberty Fund Fellows on the basis both of their own research interests and of their relevance for Liberty Fund's mission: to contribute to the preservation and development of individual liberty through research and educational activities.

Print Issues

Liberty Matters

Our Books

Liberty Fund, Inc.

Liberty Fund, Inc. is a private, educational foundation established to encourage the study of the ideal of a society of free and responsible individuals. The Foundation develops, supervises, and finances its own educational activities.