Liberty Review América Latina

Justicia Política y Social como Intercambio

OTFRIED HOFFE
ESTUDIOS PÚBLICOS 124 (2011): 1-22

En este artículo se intenta refundar la justicia política y social a partir de una concepción nueva de justicia, a saber, la justicia entendida como intercambio. Para ello, el autor revisa críticamente las concepciones clásicas más relevantes, como son las de Aristóteles, Hobbes y Kant, así como también la de autores modernos, como Rawls, Hayek y Nozick.

 


								

Filed under: Filosofía

Los Presupuestos Psicológicos en Política

ALEJANDRA SALINAS
ESTUDIOS PÚBLICOS 124 (2011): 83-112

Este trabajo se propone resumir, clasificar y comparar diversas teorías sobre las disposiciones psicológicas de los actores políticos, sus implicancias institucionales y su impacto en las políticas públicas. En el plano cognitivo, se apuntan dos nociones “fundacionales” —ignorancia inducida y elección racional— que parten de premisas opuestas: la primera detecta una incapacidad cognitiva del votante medio en los sistemas representativos, mientras la segunda lo cree racionalmente capaz, pero indiferente a obtener información política. Ambas se preocupan por los efectos políticos negativos derivados de este paisaje cognitivo, al igual que los teóricos de la racionalidad limitada, para quienes los funcionarios o expertos podrían corregir esos efectos. En contraste, los “deliberativos” asumen a priori la capacidad racional de todos los actores para deliberar sobre los asuntos públicos y proponen un modelo normativo basado en esta capacidad. Por otra parte, la fe en la deliberación y en la representación es cuestionada por quienes mantienen el supuesto cognitivo más débil, el de la “ignorancia inevitable”, y lo aplican a votantes, funcionarios y expertos por igual para alertarlos, por ejemplo, respecto de las consecuencias no intencionadas de las acciones humanas. En el plano de los sentimientos, se examinan algunos argumentos presentados para justificar o criticar el rol del Estado en atender aquellas demandas que, según las visiones respectivas, se basan en los sentimientos del miedo, la solidaridad o la compasión, y que buscarían atenuarlos mediante el asistencialismo, tanto en su versión más clásica del sistema de bienestar social como en su más moderna versión populista.

 


								

Filed under: Ciencia Política, Economía

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